Appropriate Frequency to use with Different Background Electrolytes and Capillary Inner Diameters

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The eDAQ C4D lets the user select C4D settings (frequency, amplitude and headstage gain). The optimal C4D settings depends on the background electrolyte (buffer) being used. You should download and install the C4D Profiler V2 software, and read the instructions, to help you optimise the C4D settings.

This table indicates the appropriate frequency to use with different background electrolytes and capillary inner diameters. The C4D Profiler should find that the optimum frequency is in the range of the cells without shading, while the red shaded cells are outside the frequency limits of the instrument.

Generally we recommend using a background electrolyte with a low conductivity for better sensitivity. Background electrolytes with conductivities above 3000 µS /cm (3 mS/cm) should be used with care and normally with capillary with a smaller inner diameter. Background electrolytes with a low conductivity should use a capillary with a larger inner diameter.


Capillary ID (µm) Background Electrolyte Conductivity (µS/cm)
<25 25-100 100-400 400-800 800-1600 1600-3200
25 <50 <50 <50 100 200 400
50 <50 <50 100 200 600 1200
75 <50 80 200 600 1200 2000
100 60 100 400 1000 1500 >2000
150 80 200 800 1200 1800 >2000
200 100 300 1000 1500 >2000 >2000